Interdisciplinary Bio Central
 
Review (Biomathematics/Mathematical Biology and Medicine )

Systemic and Cell-Type Specific Profiling of Molecular Changes in Parkinson`s Disease
Yunjong Lee1,*
1Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Physiology, and Neurology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*Corresponding author
  Received : July 16, 2012
  Accepted : July 19, 2012
  Published : July 24, 2012
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Synopsis

Parkinson`s disease (PD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disorder although it is oftentimes understood and defined by clinical motor symptoms originated from age dependent and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. The pathogenesis of PD involves dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons in many brain regions and the molecular mechanisms underlying the death of different cell types still remain to be elucidated.
There are indications that PD causing disease processes occur in a global scale ranging from DNA to RNA, and proteins. Several PD linked and associated genes have been reported to play diverse roles in controlling cellular functions in different levels, such as chromatin structure, transcription of mRNA, processing of mRNA, translational modulation via microRNA regulation, posttranslational modification of proteins. The advent of high throughput and quantitative screening tools makes it possible to monitor systemic changes in DNA, RNA and proteins in PD related models. Combined with dopamine neurons isolation from animal models or derivation of dopamine or nondopamine neurons from PD patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells, high throughput screening techonologies will provide opportunities to draw PD causing sequences of molecular events in pathologically relevant PD samples.
Here I discuss previous studies that identified PD relevant cellular functions in which PD genes are involved, especially those signaling pathways that can be efficiently studied using high throughput screening methodologies. Brief descriptions of highly quantitative and systemic tools looking at DNA, RNA and proteins will be followed. Finally, I will emphasize the use and potential benefits of PD patient iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons to screen complete molecular signaling pathways initiated by PD linked gene mutations and causative for dopaminergic neurodegneration in PD.

Keyword: Parkinson셲 disease, high-throughput, quantitative profiles, dopaminergic neuron, cell type specific, neurodegeneration, induced pluripotent stem cell
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